We deeply characterize tissue-resident leukocytes in meninges and brain parenchyma and discover that leukocytes respond differently to stroke depending on their site of residence. We thereby discover a unique phenotype of myeloid cells exclusive to the brain after stroke. These stroke-associated myeloid cells partially resemble neurodegenerative disease-associated microglia. They are mainly of resident microglial origin, partially conserved in humans and exhibit a lipid-phagocytosing phenotype. Blocking markers specific for these cells partially ameliorates stroke outcome thus providing a potential therapeutic target.