Understanding neuroimmunological disorders is essential for developing new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Rodent models have provided valuable insights, but are sometimes equated with their human counterparts. Here, we summarize how novel technologies may enable an improved human-focused view of immune mechanisms. Recent studies have applied these new technologies to the brain parenchyma, its surrounding cerebrospinal fluid, and peripheral immune compartments. Therapeutic interventions have also facilitated translational understanding in a reverse way. However, with improved technology, access to patient samples remains a rate-limiting step in translational research. We anticipate that next-generation neuroimmunology is likely to integrate, in the immediate future, diverse technical tools for optimal diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of neuroimmunological disorders.